|Introduction > Reviewing Literature > Acknowledging Sources > How To Cite
How To Cite
Citations are used to acknowledge someone else's work within the body of your text eg in one of your literature review sections or in a PowerPoint presentation. Although the Harvard and Numerical systems will be discussed here, check what style of citation your University or supervisor expects you to use. If you're intending to publish your research, the journal you send your work to may stipulate a particular style of references, so check before you start writing.
In the body of the text, the author's surname and date of publication is sufficient, eg
'... according to Fraser (2005) ...'
'... exposure to winter chilling significantly advanced bud burst of R. nigrum (Fraser, 2005).'.
If the reference is for one or two authors, the surnames are written out in full at all times. For three authors, the surnames are written out in full for the first reference
Park, Crook and Fraser, 2006
but further references are shortened to the first author followed by et al.
Park et al., 2006.
If you are citing more than one reference, they should be ordered firstly by chronology, then alphabetically:
'... significantly advanced bud burst (Park, 1997; Crook, 2004; Fraser, 2005; Paling, 2005) ...'.
If the authors name is unknown, but other details are available, it is acceptable to put Anon (for anonymous or not known) instead of the surname. When citing a newspaper article, if the author's name is unknown, it is acceptable to quote the title of the newspaper in its place.
The number system
In the body of text, the references are numbered based on the order you cite them, with the first reference being 1, the second 2 and so on. This referencing system is less obvious than the Harvard system and the reader can check the number against the reference list at the end of your work:
'... according to Fraser (1) ...'
'... exposure to winter chilling significantly advanced bud burst of R. nigrum (2).'.
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