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Using the Harvard Referencing System


When you use someone else’s thoughts or ideas you must acknowledge that person or their work. This should be done in the body of the text as a citation, and as a full reference at the end of your document. Failure to cite and reference properly may result in accusations of plagiarism, which is a serious academic misconduct. Although the Harvard style is one of the most common referencing system, it’s important to check with your supervisor or department what format they expect.


Harvard citations


One or two authors. Surnames and date of publication should be noted e.g. ...according to Fraser (2005)... ...winter chilling significantly advanced bud burst (Fraser and Rose, 2005)...

Three authors. Surnames and date of publication written in full the first time, subsequent citations should use the first surname, followed by et al. and the date of publication e.g. ...according to Park, Crook and Fraser (2007)... ...suggested by Park et al. (2007)...

Four or more authors. Surname of the first author followed by et al. and the date of publication.


Harvard references


Scientific paper (hard copy). Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume, page.

Scientific paper (e-journal). Surname, Initials. (Year). Title of paper. Title of journal. [online], volume. Available from: address of website. [Accessed Day Month Year].

Conference proceedings. Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of article. In Editor of the Conference proceeding (editor), Title of Conference, place and date. place of publication: publisher (if know), page numbers.

Dissertations. Surname, Initials. (Year). Title of Thesis. Thesis, (Grade, e.g. PhD, MSc, BSc). Name of awarding institution.

Books. Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of book, edition (if not the 1st). Place of publication. Publisher.

Book chapter. Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of chapter. In Surname, Initials (ed or eds). Title of Book, edition (if not the 1st). Volume number (if part of series). Place of Publication. Publisher. Year of publication of book (if different), range of page numbers for the chapter.

Websites. Surname, Initials (if known). Title [online]. Place of publication (if known). Available from: internet address. [Accessed Day Month Year].

Newspaper
. Surname, Initials. (or name of newspaper if author unknown). Year of publication. Title of Article. Title of Newspaper, day, month, Page number and column number.
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